We report on taxa from the diatom genera Gomphonema and Cymbella (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyta) found in the Jolmolungma Mountain region of China. This region is unique for its diversity of habitats, which include rivers, springs, moist soil, snowfields, swamps and lakes. We re-examine diatom taxa found in samples first documented in 1973 (Jao et al., 1973) and incorporate recent taxonomic revisions from the literature. In the genera Gomphonema and Cymbella we report 113 species and varieties. Of these 113 taxa, 59 are new record for China; 1 new combination, Encyonema jolmolungmensis, is made. Morphometric data and habitat features are reported for each taxon. Their distribution is strongly correlated to their microhabitats.