The desmid flora in Turkey has been investigated over different periods.The first study was undertaken in 1966, then there was a period of silence until 1980. Since then, there have been many studies undertaken, mostly were focused on lakes and rivers.A total of 165 taxa of 15 genera belonging to 3 families have been identified. Of all genera, Cosmarium dominated with 73 taxa, followed by Closterium with 46 taxa, Staurastrum with 19 taxa, and Euastrum 10 taxa. Other genera encountered were: Cylindrocystis (1), Netrium (1), Roya (1), Penium (3), Gonatozygon (1), Desmidium (1), Spondylosium (1), Actinotaenium (2), Pleurotaenium (2), Xanthidium (1) and Micrasterias (3). Three of the genera belong to saccoderm desmids while 12 are placoderm desmids. Regarding the species distribution in the investigated areas, rare species comprised 95.1% of the total number of taxa. Closterium acerosum, C. acutum, C. littorale, C. lunula, C. parvulum, Cosmarium botrytis, C. formosulum and C. granatum were the most frequently encountered taxa in the desmid flora of Turkey. The highest species diversity was found in localities with pH 6.8-7.5.