Crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidea) are amongst the most abundant and diverse insects in New Caledonia: 40 genera are recorded today from the Archipelago and 180 cricket species have been reported; 19 genera and more than 90% of the species are endemic. Owing to this diversity, crickets prove an interesting model to test evolutionary hypotheses about New Caledonia and its fauna. They also reveal useful ecological indicators to survey and manage New Caledonian biodiversity. Both research and conservation developments need however that crickets are properly identified. In the present paper, an illustrated key to the identification of New Caledonian cricket genera is proposed, based on specimen examination; an emended diagnosis is given for each genus, using general morphology, coloration and the main traits of male genitalia, together with available data on habitat and biology. The genus Paora Gorochov, 1986 n. stat. is restored from its synonymy with Apteronemobius Chopard, 1929, Trigonidomorpha Chopard, 1925 n. stat. is restored as a valid genus, not a subgenus of Trigonidium Rambur, 1839, and one new genus and five new species are described: Archenopterus adamantus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. (Gryllidae, Podoscirtinae), Caledonina Desutter-Grandcolas, n. gen., with Caledonina chopardi Desutter-Grandcolas, n. gen., n. sp. as the type species, Koghiella minima Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. and Orintia cornuta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. (Trigonidiidae, Nemobiinae), and Lepidogryllus darthvaderi Desutter-Grandcolas & Anso, n. sp. (Gryllidae, Gryllinae).
Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Oceania, identification key, new species, new genus.