The first report of the sea urchin (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) species, Temnopleurus decipiens (de Meijere, 1904) is given from Indian waters (Goa, west coast of India). A complete redescription of the species has been made based on test morphology using 27 phenotypic parameters. This species differs from the original description in that “the ocular plates do not reach the periproct margin.” A detailed comparison with another congener, namely Temnopleurus toreumaticus (Leske, 1778) revealed that apart from the position of the anus and the presence of a suranal plate, notable differences were also observed in the diameter of the apical system, plan of sutural pits, pore-pairs structure, ratio of spine length to maximum test diameter, and colour banding of the spines. Further, the paper provides a modified taxonomic key to all the seven extant species of the genus Temnopleurus L. Agassiz, 1841 with two additional characters.
Sea urchin, Temnopleurus, morphology, first record, India.