The shrimp Hippolyte ventricosa H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is redescribed in detail, largely on the basis of syntypes. H. ventricosa has been previously recorded in various parts of the Indo-Pacific Ocean but most of these records are probably based on closely related species. For the time being, the true H. ventricosa is only known with certainty from India. Subtle but significant differences have been detected beween Indian H. ventricosa and its close relative from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, H. orientalis Heller, 1862. These two species were previously considered as synonyms. A lectotype is designated for Hippolyte proteus (Paulson, 1875).
Hippolyte ventricosa, Hippolyte orientalis, Hippolyte proteus, Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea, Hippolytidae, Indo-Pacific, India, Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, taxonomy, syntypes.