The four zoeal stages and megalopal phase of the xanthid crab Lophozozymus pictor (Fabricius, 1798) are described and fully illustrated. A comparison between the zoeal stages of L. pictor and Atergatis reticulatus is tabulated. Characters selected from larvae representing six subfamilies, which may define first stage Xanthidae MacLeay, 1838 (sensu Serène, 1984) zoea, are listed. The first stage zoeal appendages of Palapedia valentini Ng, 1993, considered to be diagnostic of a new Xanthidae subfamily Kraussiinae Ng, 1993, are reappraised and the chaetotaxy of the antennal exopod as a diagnostic character of the Xanthidae MacLeay, 1838 (sensu Serène, 1984), is discussed.
Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Xanthidae, first stage zoea, familial diagnostic characters, Lophozozymus, Palapedia.