The preparation of the skull of Propalaeotherium from Pépieux formerly described and figured by Filhol (1888) has been improved. A new study of this specimen corroborates its assignment to the species P. isselanum, through the comparison with a partial skull from Issel. Moreover it is brought to light that the teeth are slightly larger, slightly higher, more lophodont and less bulky, with a thinner enamel, than those of the rather rich Geiseltal MK material, up to now referred to as P. "isselanum". The skull is otherwise characterized by a rather low degree of encephalization; it is narrower, has less elongate postcanine diastemata than the Geiseltal ones and contrarily presents optic foramina joining together in a single optic canal. These observations lead to the conclusion that the Geiseltal MK form might represent a new, so far undefined, species.
Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Palaeotheriidae, middle Eocene, southern France, skull anatomy, endocranial cast