The synonymy of Periomphale Baill. and Wittstenia F. Muell., proposed by van Steenis in 1984, is questioned as several characters allow these genera to be distinguished from one another. A single species, Periomphale balansae Baill. is recognised in New Caledonia and three names are put into synonymy. The reduction or absence of the disc and the non-opening of the corolla are not considered to be within the normal range of variation of this species; there is a link between these anomalies and the presence of parasitic insects. A key to the four genera of the family Alseuosmiaceae is given as well as an account of the nomenclature of Periomphale.