The choice of species used for meat supply of a human group is part of his cultural identity. As so, is it a usefull criterion in these definition of ancient cultures? Is it marked and systematic enough to be discernable through archaeological faunal corpus? Those questions are treated in the study of the Chasséen, a Middle Neolithic culture the lengh of which (about 1,000 years C14) and the expansion of which (almost ail France) allow to approach complementary problems of persistence of traditions and adaptation to environment. The Chassean society shows a great constance in its meat supply modalities, at least in its nuclear area (South of France). One could observe phenomenon of adaptation to new environmental conditions in its different areas of expension (Plateau picard, for exemple).