Five foliose lichens species have just been discovered in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (France): Anaptychia palmulata (Michx.) Vain., Leptogium laceroides B. de Lesd., Phaeophyscia adiastola (Essl.) Essl., Phaeophyscia rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. and Pyxine sorediata (Ach.) Mont. The preglacial relictual status of these macrolichens, which are rare and associated with deciduous forests, is supported by several arguments. Each taxon is described and compared with the related species, its local ecology is detailed and its European distribution is given. Anaptychia palmulata and P. adiastola are new to Europe; P. rubropulchra to France, Italy and Turkey; L. laceroides and P. sorediata to Reunion Island (western Indian Ocean).