Integrated studies on the Pliocene vertebrate locality of Çalta provided abundant data on the environment of the fauna, its biogeographic relationships and its age. The fauna is dominated by animals adapted to relatively dry and open environments with loose soil and some water points. The presence of short-limbed herbivores and of ochotonids might indicate a landscape with some relief nearby. The Çalta fauna is mainly composed of elements with European and some Asiatic affinities. African affinities of some taxa are doubtful. The time range of some mammalian groups is discussed, the Çalta locality is dated as early MN15 (late Ruscinian).
Mammals, Pliocene, Ruscinian, Turkey, paleoenvironment, biogeography, biochronology