Allopatric alpine populations of Phtheochroa frigidana s. lat. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) are reviewed. In addition to traditional diagnostic characters of external morphology, the genitalia structures of everted vesicae in male genitalia and DNA barcodes are analysed. This new approach supports the existence of five rather than two species in Europe: Phtheochroa schawerdae (Rebel, 1908) comb. nov. (Dinaric Mts, Rila Mts, Pirin Mts) = P. drenowskyi (Rebel, 1916) syn. nov.; P. alpinana sp. nov. (SW Alps); P. apenninana sp. nov. (Apennines); P. frigidana (Guenée, 1845) stat. rev. (Pyrenees) = P. flavidana (Guenée, 1845) = P. sulphurana (Guenée, 1845) = P. andorrana (Millière, 1865); P. cantabriana sp. nov. (Cantabrian Mts). In order to stabilize the nomenclature, a neotype for Eupoecilia frigidana is designated.
Lepidoptera, Phtheochroa frigidana, species complex, revised taxonomy, DNA barcoding.