Knowledge about the taxonomy and distribution of the monogeneric polychaete family Longosomatidae Hartman, 1944 is limited in all parts of the world. A new species of the genus Heterospio Ehlers, 1874 (Annelida, Longosomatidae) is described from the Indian Ocean. Heterospio indica sp. nov. is mainly characterised by the conspicuous flattening of the distal half of capillary chaetae located in anterior elongated segments. Several body characters of high taxonomic relevance in the genus are examined under the SEM and discussed. The 18S SSU rDNA and COI genes were sequenced and represent the first sequencing of a species of Heterospio, and the sequences have been deposited in GenBank.
Polychaeta, Heterospio indica new species, taxonomy, SEM, DNA barcodes.