Bothriomyrmex enigmaticus sp. nov. is described from the island of Hispañola based on one nest collection. This is the first collection of the genus Bothriomyrmex (Emery, 1869) from the Caribbean region, and the second species to be described from the Americas. While sharing several characters with B. paradoxus (Dubovikoff & Longino, 2004) from Costa Rica and Honduras, B. enigmaticus sp. nov. diverges in several key characters, including palp formula. However, a morphometric comparison to Palearctic species of the tribe Bothriomyrmecini suggests affinities to B. paradoxus, Chronoxenus wroughtoni (Forel, 1895) of the eastern Palearctic, and to a lesser extent an undescribed species of Arnoldius (Dubovikoff, 2005) from Australia and B. corsicus (Santschi,1923) of the western Palearctic.
Bothriomyrmecini, Dolichoderinae, Greater Antilles, disjunct distribution, Neotropic.