Four taxa belonging to the complex of species around Achnanthidium minutissimum were found during the ongoing taxonomic revision of the Antarctic freshwater and limno-terrestrial diatom flora. Two taxa were previously described as Achnanthidium lailae and A. sieminskae. Two others were formerly identified as A. minutissimum but detailed light and scanning electron microscopical observations revealed sufficient morphological differences compared to the type of A. minutissimum, to justify their separation and description as new taxa: Achnanthidium indistinctum and A. maritimo-antarcticum. The morphology and ecology of all four taxa are discussed comparing the species with morphologically similar taxa. The biogeographical consequences of the splitting of the former A. minutissimum complex in the Antarctic Region are discussed.
Achnanthidium, Bacillariophyta, Antarctic Region, new species, biogeography.