Based on herbarium material, supplemented by living material of 2 taxa, the genus Operculicarya is synoptically revised. All 5 recognized species of Operculicarya are described in detail and illustrated (leaves only), and notes on relationship and distribution are included, as well as a key to species. 3 species are described as new : O. borealis from the extreme N. of Madagascar, from the inland region of Ihosy, and O. pachypus from near Tuléar in S.-W. Madagascar. An additional possible species of the genus is left unnamed because insufficient material is available, and its generic affiliation with Operculicarya is uncertain. Only O. decaryi is anything like widespread, all the others appear to be narrowly endemic, and their ranges to not overlap except those of O. pachypus with O. decaryi . The relationships of Operculicarya with Poupartia and Lannea are shortly discussed.