A morphological study, supplemented by molecular analysis (ITS1-2 nrDNA, and trnL-F cpDNA) revealed Scapania aspera M.Bernet & Bernet, a species that is typically distributed throughout Europe, in samples collected from Anabar Plateau, Taimyr District, Subarctic East Siberia. The ecology and distribution of this species are discussed, and images of Siberian specimens of Scapania aspera are provided. This finding of the species is both the easternmost and the northernmost in Eurasia and is at least 3000 km from the nearest European localities. The territory is remarkable due to extensive outcrops of calcareous rocks. A number of rare calcareous bryophytes with disjunctive distribution have been observed in this area. Despite the significant distance and probable isolation, the molecular distances between newly identified Siberian population and the European populations are extremely low.