The distribution and systematic position of Kindbergia Ochyra in China is re-evaluated. The phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear marker (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic markers (rpl16, trnG, and trnL-F) show that the alleged species of "Kindbergia" in China and Himalayas form a maximally supported clade (1.00 PP and 100 MPBS), which is closely related to the clade of Brachythecium Schimp., Eurhynchiadelphus Ignatov et Huttunen, and Myuroclada Besch., whereas the other Kindbergia specimens from Africa, America, Europe, Japan and the Southern Hemisphere form a monophyletic group, which is sister to Scleropodium Schimp. The specimens of Chinese species of "Kindbergia" are found, both molecularly and morphologically, to be identical with the Himalayan K. dumosa (Mitt.) Ignatov et Huttunen, and differ from Kindbergia specimens from other regions in the world in the shape of proximal branch leaves, operculum shape and capsule orientation. A new monotypic genus Pseudokindbergia M. Li, Y.F. Wang, Ignatov et B.C. Tan, is established to accommodate only the generitype P. dumosa (Mitt.) M. Li, Y.F. Wang, Ignatov et B.C. Tan, comb. nov. (≡ Hypnum dumosum Mitt.), and Bryhnia serricuspis (Mitt.) Y.F. Wang et R.L. Hu (≡ Eurhynchium serricuspis Mitt.) is considered synonymous with it.