The current geographical distribution of the rheophytic moss Bucklandiella lamprocarpa (Müll.Hal.) Bednarek-Ochyra et Ochyra in the central and northern Andean countries in South America is reviewed and mapped. The specimens reported from Peru as Racomitrium bartramii (Roiv.) H.Rob. are taxonomically assessed and some details of their structure are illustrated. As a result of this study it was determined that its morphological features fall well within the range of variability of Bucklandiella lamprocarpa. The global geographical distribution of B. lamprocarpa is outlined and the species is confirmed to be an austral cool-adapted moss which deeply penetrates into the tropics, occurring at high elevations in central and northern South America and in East and Central Africa.