Racomitrium capense Lorentz, a neglected moss species described from the Western Cape in South Africa, is taxonomically assessed and the most important characters of the type material are illustrated. This species is considered to be conspecific with Bucklandiella lamprocarpa (Müll.Hal.) Bednarek-Ochyra et Ochyra. African synonyms of B. lamprocarpa are summarised and some synonymous names are lectotypified. The global range of B. lamprocarpa is briefly considered and some comment on rheophytic mosses is included.