We report our studies of the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in two limestone mosses, Tortula sinensis (Müll. Hal.) Broth. and Barbula convoluta Hedw., and the influence of desiccation and salinity on their CA activities. The result shows that the activities of carbonic anhydrase can be measured in these two mosses, and the activity of extracellular carbonic anhydrase in T. sinensis and in B. convoluta was 37.96 and 41.25 of the total CA activity, respectively. The activity of carbonic anhydrase in B. convoluta and T. sinensis reaches its peak when the concentration of sodium chloride is 2 (w/v) and 1 (w/v), respectively. The relationship between the dehydration time and the activities of carbonic anhydrase in mosses is one of parabola. The carbonic anhydrase activity in T. sinensis reaches its maximum after 2 hours of dehydration, and after 3 hours, in the case of B. convoluta. The study of the activities of carbonic anhydrase in T. sinensis and B. convoluta may explain how these two mosses adapt to growing on limestone.