In 1967, a large number of mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) bones were accidenta!ly discovered near Spadzista street in Cracow (Poland). The result of the excavations undertaken in 1968-1971 was the discovery of an Upper Paleolithic site, Cracow Spadzista Street B. Stone artifacts belonging to the Kostenki-Avdeevo culture were associated with the mammoth bones and teeth. New excavations were conducted at this site in 1989. A large number of paleontological and archaeological materials was discovered. Ninety nine per cent of the bones and teeth from the 1968-1971, 1989-1991, and 1994 excavations belonged to mammoths. On the basis of the study of the mandibles and lower molars, it was possible to quantify the number of mammoths and to estimate their age. A second estimation was done, based on the postcranial bones. The MNI, calculated on the lower teeth and mandibles, indicated the presence of 75 individuals for the 1968-71, 1989-90, 1992-94 excavations. The MNI estimated with the postcranial bones vary from 58 (atlas) to 5 (Vth metatarsal ).
Mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, Cracow Spadzista, Upper Paleolithic, Pleistocene