The first data about the distribution of desmids in Serbia derive from the year 1883 and from that time up to the end of 2010 there were identified 646 different taxa. The species-rich genus Staurastrum is represented with 116 taxa which is about 18 of the total number of desmids in Serbia. Taxa of the genus Staurastrum occur in a large variety of habitats in Serbia, but the greatest diversity was recorded in high mountain peat bogs. In Serbia till now, a large number of taxa of the genus Staurastrum (40.5) has been found only on one locality (exceptionally rare taxa). In contrast, the species S.alternans, S. gracile, S. orbiculare, S. paradoxum, S. polymorphum and S. tetracerum belong to the most common species in Serbia. In this paper a review is presented of the main taxonomic and ecological characteristics of taxa of the genus Staurastrum, recorded from Serbia.