Oxera pancheri Dubard, a name placed in synonymy under Oxera sulfurea Dubard in the revision of the genus in 1999 and 2004, is rehabilitated. Newly collected specimens, especially the first material ever with fruits, supports the recognition of this species, first described in 1906. Morphologically, O. pancheri differs from O. sulfurea by its racemiform inflorescences, its stamens and style slightly exserted and its velutinous fruits. Oxera pancheri seems morphologically closer (based on inflorescence type, shape and characteristics of the mericarps, juvenile foliage) to O. microcalyx Guillaumin than to O. sulfurea. Oxera pancheri is endemic to the southern part of New Caledonia’s main island “Grande-Terre”, growing on ultramafic substrates. The limited geographic distribution of this species and the threats to its remaining populations lead us to assign a provisional conservation status of Endangered using the IUCN Red List criteria.