Four new species and one new variety in Thelypteridaceae Pic. Serm. from Madagascar are described: 1) Christella darainensis Rakotondr., sp. nov., similar to C. gueinziana (Mett.) Holttum, but distinguished by sterile and fertile fronds dimorphous, proximal pinnae slightly reduced, never auricled, and ultimate segments wider and with an obtuse apex separated by narrower sinuses; 2) Pronephrium fidelei Rakotondr., sp. nov., resembling Pronephrium firmulum (Baker) Holttum but differing by pinnae not auricled, and broad persistent indusia; 3) Pronephrium marojejyensis Rakotondr., sp. nov., near to Pneumatopteris blastophora (Alston) Holttum, differing by non-gemmiferous fronds and the presence of spherical glands on lamina and sporangia; 4) Pseudocyclosorus pulcher (Bory ex Willd.) Holttum var. squamata Rakotondr., var. nov. differing from var. pulcher by the presence of some hairy scales on costae and costulae and by the nervation of the lamina and 5) Pseudophegopteris andringitrensis Rakotondr., sp. nov., resembling Pseudophegopteris henriquesii (Baker) Holttum but distinguished by linear fronds, median pinnae, 3.5-4.5 cm large, spaced more than their width, appressed acicular hairs, and absence of spherical glands on lamina and axes. The genus Pronephrium C.Presl is recorded for the first time in the Africano-Malagasy region.