As part of an assessment of the vascular plant families endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, a synoptic revision is presented of Leptolaena Thouars sensu stricto (Sarcolaenaceae). Unresolved questions of generic delimitation among Leptolaena s.s., Mediusella (Cavaco) Hutch., Xerochlamys Baker, and Sarcolaena Thouars preclude a comprehensive revision of Leptolaena sensu lato at the present time. Two previously recognized species are retained (L. multiflora and L. pauciflora), L. cuspidata is resurrected from synonymy, and five new species are described: L. abrahamii, L. delphinensis, L. gautieri, L. masoalensis, and L. raymondii. Preliminary assessments of the conservation status of each species are provided, along with a key to the species in English and French.
Sarcolaenaceae, Leptolaena, Madagascar, conservation