A population of an unknown Psammothidium species (Bacillariophyta, Achnanthidiaceae) was found in core sediments collected from Cimera Lake, an oligotrophic, undisturbed mountain lake in Central Spain (Gredos mountain range). The morphology and ultrastructure of this taxon is hereby documented in detail by means of light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) micrographs. Morphologically, the closest taxon is P. levanderi, and the type of this species is analyzed here to provide a differential diagnosis. A comparison with other similar small Psammothidium species with an elliptic outline show that the combination of features exhibited by this taxon is unique and it is thus described here as Psammothidium toroi sp. nov.