The genus Oxypiloidea Schulthess, 1898 is fully revised after the study of about 700 specimens preserved in more than 30 scientific institutions and some private collections. The genus is located in connexion with the nearest ones, and the two subgenera Oxypiloidea and Catasigerpes Giglio-Tos, 1927 are distinguished after the conformation of male genitalia, with respectively ten and eleven species, for which identification keys are given for males in French and in English, while four other species, known only by a single female, cannot be put in either genus. Twelve new species are described, six for each subgenus: Oxypiloidea (Oxypiloidea) murphyi n. sp., O. (O.) dargei n. sp., O. (O.) denticulata n. sp., O. (O.) angolica n. sp., O. (O.) carvalhoi n. sp., O. (O.) namibiana n. sp., O. (Catasigerpes) maroccana n. sp., O. (C.) orientalis n. sp., O. (C.) maldesi n. sp., O. (C.) ivoirensis n. sp., O. (C.) sinuata n. sp., O. (C.) centrafricana n. sp.
Mantodea, Hymenopodidae, Acromantinae, Africa, new species, lectotypification.