A pelagic record of a rare deep-water shark, the velvet dogfish Zameus squamulosus (Günther, 1877), is described from the southwestern Indian Ocean. This is the first pelagic record from the western Indian Ocean and the eleventh published record of this species from the entire basin. Together with non-published records from museums and online databases the number of verified Indian Ocean records of this species currently exceeds 50 individuals. Zameus squamulosus is a benthopelagic species usually occurring on the slopes of the continents and in mid-ocean oceanic ridges, between 400 and 1450 m depth, but it makes rare incursions in open water to the limits of the epipelagic zone.
Elasmobranchii, benthopelagic shark, deep-water habitat, pelagic occurrence, SW Indian Ocean, new records.