The exploration of submarine caves in the Mediterranean Sea has allowed to rediscover a small ascidian: Rhodosoma callense (Lacaze Duthiers, 1865) of the family Corellidae. This species has the shape of a box with an articulated lid. Discovered in the XIXth century and taler forgotten, it had been confused with the only other species of the genus. The search for additional specimens in circalittoral dredgings has proved a wide distribution over the Mediterranean Sea.
Ascidians, Mediterranean Sea, caves.