Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) feeding on conifers are given, including species from nearby areas of Central and Western Europe, based on live and freeze-dried material. Externally visible informative characters, such as body shape, colours, wax coating, and pigmentation pattern are utilized, in addition to characters traditionally used in the literature. Rich illustrations with photographs of live colonies and freeze-dried specimens, supported by drawings where needed, are presented. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and aphid-ant associations are presented.
Nordic aphids on conifers, identification keys, colour images, Adelgidae, Cinarinae.