Tree fodder (leaves, twigs?) to feed ruminants seems to have been used since the Neolithic, although there is little direct archaeological evidence. The recognition of ?ecological anomalies? in charcoal diagrams of cave sheepfolds, identified in the South of France, constitutes an additional indication. They suggest that certain species such as ash and deciduous oak were selected and gathered to feed animals during seasons of deficiencies, or as food complement. The production of tree fodder by pollarding of a large number of trees modifies our perception of the past landscapes, composed of totally managed and exploited forest territories.
Tree fodder, Ruminants, Neolithic, Anthracology, South of France.