The domestic cattle of the Rhineland in pre-Roman times had an average shoulder height of 105 to 115 cm. Starting with the Roman occupation, due to the importation of larger animals and selective breeding, there is an increase in size to 140 cm. The knowledge and success of the Roman breeding traditions were lost at the beginning of Medieval times when the Franks introduced their own smaller animals. From the 6th to the 9th century these animals increased in size due to the good pastures available around Cologne. Because of the intensification of agriculture in the 10th century, the richer soils were unavailable for pasture and smaller cattle (90 to 105 cm) became dominant. Wider trade in the 12th century brought larger cattle again to Cologne.
Cattle, Cologne, Roman period, Medieval times.