A synopsis of our understanding of the genus Triplophyllum Holttum in Madagascar is presented. Five taxa are recognized: T. fraternum (Mett. ex Kuhn) Holttum subsp. fraternum, T. pentagonum (Bonap.) Holttum, T. speciosum (Alston) Holttum et T. varians (T.Moore) Holttum subsp. anjanabense (Tardieu) Rakotondr. that are endemic to Madagascar and T. protensum (Afzel. ex Sw.) Holttum that occurs in Madagascar and Africa. A new nomenclatural combination, T. varians subsp. anjenabense, and a new synonymy, T. pentagonum and Dryopteris pentagona Bonap. var. caudata Bonap., are made. A key is provided to distinguish the taxa. All taxa are described and illustrated and distribution maps are provided.
Pteridophyta, Tectariaceae, Triplophyllum, Madagascar