A taxonomic revision of Octolepis Oliv. (Thymelaeaceae) based on morphology is presented. Six species are recognized. The sole continental African species, O. casearia Oliv., is the only member of sect. Octolepis; the five other species, all from Madagascar, are placed in the new sect. Dioicae. Two varieties are recognized for O. casearia (var. casearia and flamignii); O. decalepis Gilg is placed formally into synonymy for the first time under O. casearia. Three of the five species of sect. Dioicae are described as new (O. aymoniniana, O. ibityensis, and O. ratovosonii); O. dioica Capuron f. oblanceolata Capuron is raised to the rank of species. This revision includes full descriptions, illustrations of new species, identification keys, and conservation assessments for each taxon.
Thymelaeaceae, Octolepidoideae, Octolepis, Africa, Madagascar, conservation, new species