In preparation for an assessment of the conservation status of all taxa in the vascular plant families endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, to be compiled as a Red Data Book under the auspices of the IUCN, a synoptic revision of Melanophylla Baker (Melanophyllaceae) is presented. Recent molecular sequence data support the exclusion of Melanophylla from Cornaceae (under which it was originally treated for the Flore de Madagascar), and suggest instead placement at the base of Araliales sister to Aralidium Miq. Critical comparison of all available herbarium material leads us to recognize six species, one of which, M. modestei, is described as new; four formerly recognized species are placed in synonymy. A key to the species is provided in English and French.
Madagascar, endemic families, Melanophylla, Melanophyllaceae